### „Expanding Universe“ – the greatest mathematical deception in 20th century physics

**By Menahem Simhony **2000

*Beitrag aus dem GOM-Projekt: 2394 weitere kritische Veröffentlichungen *

zur Ergänzung der Dokumentation Textversion 1.2 – 2004, Kapitel 4.

**„Expanding Universe“ – the greatest mathematical deception in 20th century physics** / Menahem Simhony. – [Israel]: WWW 2000. 6 S.

**URL: ****http://www.epola.co.uk/epola_org/BIGBANG.HTML**

**1. Blueshifts, Redshifts, and the Doppler Effect.** Based on the Faraday’s dielectric ether wave-theory of light, C.J.Doppler derived in 1842, that when the source (emitter) and/or the receiver (observer) of light move **toward** each other, then the frequency **f’** of the received light is higher than the frequency **f** of light received when they are at rest. The frequencies of the received light, with all its spectral colours and lines, are thus shifted toward the higher frequency blue light. The received light is **blue-shifted**, by the difference between these frequencies, **f ’ – f**.

The ratio **(f’ – f)/f** , is the **blueshift** value of the light. When the emitter and/or receiver move **away** from one another, the frequency of the received light is lowered, **red-shifted**, by **f ’ – f**. The ratio **(f ’ – f)/f** , is the **redshift** value of the light. Doppler found that the blueshifts or redshifts are equal to the velocity **v** of the emitter relative to the receiver, divided by the velocity of light **c**. The formula for the Doppler effect is thus **(f ’- f)/f = v/c**.

Therefore, e.g., if mother Earth would be moving **toward** (instead of **around**) the sun with Her velocity of 30 km/s, a ten-thousandth of the velocity of light (**v/c**=0.0001), we would observe in our spectrometers, that the frequencies of all lines in the sunlight spectrum are ** blueshifted** by a ten-thousandth of their „normal“ values f. Moving with this velocity

**away**from the Sun, we would observe a

**redshift**of all spectral lines by a ten-thousandth of their „normal“ frequencies f.

Doppler’s derivations disagreed with the false *„accepted scientific knowledge“* that *„the velocity of the emitter shall* *just add to the velocity of the emitted light*„. Doppler’s work was published, because this was the golden era of „freedom of publication“ in science. However it was bitterly opposed by scientists during two decades. It did not help that the Doppler Effect could be observed in the higher pitch (or frequency) of the sound of the whistle of an approaching locomotive, and in the reduced frequency or lower pitch, when the locomotive moved away. Doppler died in 1853, unappreciated for his great discovery.

In 1860, Ernst Mach suggested that the Doppler Effect might be observed in spectra of light from stars. In 1868, W.Huggins observed redshifts and blueshifts in such spectra, from which stars were found moving **away and toward us** with velocities ranging from 0.3 to ~100 km/s.

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