### Clock synchronization without electromagnetic signals

**By Nicholas Sama** 2005 ca.

*Beitrag aus dem GOM-Projekt: 2394 weitere kritische Veröffentlichungen *

zur Ergänzung der Dokumentation Textversion 1.2 – 2004, Kapitel 4.

**Clock synchronization without electromagnetic signals **/ Nicholas Sama. – [Land?]: WWW 2005 ca. 10 S. http://www.fiu.edu/~hawkinsl/paper/synchronize2.htm

**Abstract: **The motional dependence of clock rates and the related problem of synchronization are analyzed.

It is shown that any possible motional effect on observed clock rates can be experimentally determined by the use of unsynchronized clocks *alone*, and that in consequence this result can be utilized to synchronize a system of clocks without light signals and without any assumptions whatever regarding the properties of space. Thus one is not free, as special relativity has claimed, to establish a time scale by *defining* the synchronization procedure.

**I. Introduction
**It has long been believed that the synchronization of spatially separated clocks cannot be accomplished without the use of, and without certain assumptions concerning, light signals or their various equivalents. The first statement of this belief appears to have been made by Einstein, who, in the presentation of his special theory of relativity, categorically denied the possibility of synchronizing a clock at some point

*A*with an identical clock at some spatially removed point

*B*"…unless we establish

*by definition*that the ‚time‘ required by light to travel from

*A*to

*B*equals the ‚time‘ it requires to travel from

*B*to

*A*"

^{(1)}[emphasis original]. On this basis, a light signal emitted from the location of a clock

*C*

_{A}at time

*t*

_{A}and returned to

*A*at time

*t*‚

_{A}via a reflection at

*B*, can be used to "synchronize" the clock

*C*

_{B}to

*C*

_{A}by setting

*t*

_{B}= (

*t*

_{A}+

*t‘*

_{A})/2 at the instant when the signal is reflected at

*B*.

Subsequently, this aspect of clock synchronization has been elaborated upon in most textbooks^{(2)} on relativity, with emphasis on the "coupled" nature of the synchronizing signal and the synchronization itself. That is to say, in any attempt at a synchronization by means of a *one-way* signal, the one-way signal speed would have to be known. But the one-way speed cannot be measured unless the clocks are already synchronized, so that one is moving in a logical circle. This, in outline, is the prevailing view on clock synchronization. It will henceforth be referred to as SRS (Special Relativistic Synchronization); because it is the basis for the kinematics of special relativity, the SRS is obviously a cornerstone of the theory.

A little reflection reveals that the SRS gives rise to a rather unusual situation. In the first place, the SRS incorporates the equality of one-way times into the time scale not as an assumption subject to test, but rather as the explicitly stated conviction ("…cannot be defined…"^{1}) that one cannot do otherwise; in this context, no physical meaning can be attached to one-way times, and all experiments purporting to measure them will always reduce to a trivial retrieval of the information stored in the SRS^{(3)}. The measurement of one-way times is in this way excluded by the SRS.

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- 15. April 2013
- Englischsprachige Kritik der Relativitätstheorie
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