### A New Non-Doppler Redshift

**A New Non-Doppler Redshift
**by

**Paul Marmet,**Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics

National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0R6

Updated from:

**Physics Essays**, Vol. 1, No: 1, p. 24-32, 1988

**Zitat:**

**Abstract**

It is known that many astronomical observations cannot be explained by means of the ordinary Doppler shift interpretation. The mere examination of a recent catalog of objects having very large redshifts shows that among 109 quasi-stellar objects for which both absorption and emission lines could be measured, the value of the absorption redshift of a given object is always different from the one measured in emission for the same object. It is clear that such results cannot be explained as being due solely to a Doppler redshift.

A new mechanism must be looked for, in order to explain those inconsistent redshifts and many other observations related to the „redshift controversy“.

It is possible to calculate a very slight inelastic scattering phenomenon compatible with observed redshifts using electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics, without the need to introduce *ad hoc* physical hypotheses.

A careful study of the mechanism for the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by gaseous atoms and molecules shows that an electron is always momentarily accelerated as a consequence of the momentum transfer imparted by a photon. Such an acceleration of an electric charge produces bremsstrahlung.

It is shown in the present work that this phenomenon has a very large cross section in the forward direction and that the energy lost by bremsstrahlung causes a slight redshift. It is also demonstrated that the relative energy loss of the electromagnetic wave for blackbody radiation, such as for many celestial objects, follows the same „Dn/n = constant“ law as if it were a Doppler law.

This redshift appears indistinguishable from the Doppler shift except when resonant states are present in the scattering gas. It is also shown that the lost energy should be detectable mostly as low frequency radio waves. The proposed mechanism leads to results consistent with many redshifts reported in astrophysical data.

** 1. Introduction**

Astrophysical observations show that the electromagnetic radiation originating from cosmological objects is often redshifted. Except for some hypothesis such as assuming that it is a gravitational redshift, this has always been interpreted as a Doppler shift. To date, the interaction of light with interstellar gas has not been seriously considered as a possible mechanism responsible for the observed redshift because no known forward scattering process could be demonstrated to lead to an effect compatible with common astronomical observations. The redshift observed in astronomy that agrees with a shift of Doppler origin, follows the relationship:

(1) |

where Dn is the change in frequency of the radiation and n is the frequency of the emitted light.

Thomson scattering however does not lead to Eq. (1). In this case, electrons accelerated by the transverse electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation emit radiation due to their transversal acceleration. For example, the polarized blue radiation scattered by the daytime sky results from the transverse acceleration of bound electrons by visible light. It is well known that the cross section leading to such scattering increases very rapidly as a function of frequency n and therefore cannot lead to a red shift following Eq. (1).

Let us now consider the photon momentum in the direction of the propagation of the wave. It is this momentum which produces the Compton effect. In this case, the momentum transfer from the photon to the electron is taken into account. However, no one has ever fully taken into account the bremsstrahlung resulting from the momentum transferred to an electric charge, when the energy of the electromagnetic radiation is imparted to electrons or atoms. Although Boekelheide ^{(1)} and Cavanaugh ^{(2)} observed energy losses at very high energy due to relativistic effects on free electrons called „double Compton scattering“, no one ^{(3)} has found a full solution to the S-matrix that could describe electromagnetic wave interaction on atom at very low energy. It is this low energy interaction which is interesting here.

Maxwell’s equations predict that radiation is emitted as a consequence of the change of velocity (acceleration) of the electron impinged on, due to momentum transfer. That point has been taken into account in quantum electrodynamics as explained by Jauch and Rohrlich ^{(3)} who show that such a phenomenon always exists, as seen in their statement:

* „This bremsstrahlung or deceleration radiation with the emission of a single photon is a well defined process only within certain limits: The simultaneous emission of very soft photons – too soft to be observed within the accuracy of the energy determination of the incident outgoing electron*

**–**

**can never be excluded.**In this paper, we consider this problem at very low energy (visible light and lower energy) where classical considerations are still mostly valid. We further consider the case of photon scattering on atoms at an extremely low atom density, which is a condition prevailing in outer space. In the usual treatment of the Compton effect, bremsstrahlung is neglected. In these circumstances, it is known that the change Dl in wavelength is given by:

*In fact, this*radiation is always present*even in the so-called elastic scattering*^{(3)}.“

(2) |

where h = Planck’s constant, m_{e} = mass of the electron, c = velocity of light in vacuum and q = scattering angle.

From Eq. (2), we must notice that at any angle of scattering, bremsstrahlung is completely neglected. However, the electron is accelerated during the scattering. In order to illustrate the basic principle leading to an energy loss due to bremsstrahlung, let us examine the case of 90^{o }Compton scattering on a free electron which is initially at rest. The photon momentum transferred to the electron is such that the collision imparts motion to it. Since the electron, initially at rest, becomes in motion after the impact, somehow it must have been accelerated.

According to electromagnetic theory, any accelerated charge must emit bremsstrahlung. Since the Compton electron has been accelerated, it must emit bremsstrahlung. Although the energy emitted due to such acceleration is extremely small, it is not zero and should not be neglected as done at low energy. It will be seen that this energy loss adds a slight correction to Eq. (2). The case of interaction at q = 0 requires special considerations. It can be considered either as an extreme case of Compton scattering (q = 0) or better as the simple transmission of radiation through the particles of a gas. In the latter case, the scattering angle is essentially zero degrees, but the physical reality of interaction with atoms is evident because the observed average speed of light is reduced in gases.

This reduced speed of light in gases is frequently calculated with the help of the index of refraction. In this paper, that parameter will be calculated as the group velocity and will be considered in more detail below. The interaction during transmission (or the scattering angle q = 0) is the only one that will be treated in this paper, since it leads to measurable predictions of light traveling through space.

In order to be able to evaluate the energy loss due to such a phenomenon, one needs to calculate different parameters such as the time of coherence of the electromagnetic radiation, the index of refraction of gases, and several other quantities. These parameters will be calculated in Appendices A and B.

**(Zitatende)**

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- 10. März 2009
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