Nikolai Rudakov: „Einstein’s Assumptions”

Ich nehme Bezug auf meinen Blog-Eintrag: Nikolai Rudakov: „Establishment”. Aus dem dort genannten Buch (1981): „Fiction stranger than truth – In the metaphysical labyrinth of relativity” von Nikolai Rudakov bringe ich nachstehend eine weitere Leseprobe:


11 Einstein’s Assumptions
Let us review and restate the essential elements of Einstein’s argument as they emerge after consideration of the simultaneity definition and the rod experiment, expounded in the first two chapters of the 1905 paper. These chapters, headed Definition of Simultaneity and On the Relativity of Lengths and Times, contain the core of the Einsteinian argument and incorporate a number of basic assumptions which we are now going to separate and briefly examine. Our examination will indicate that the tenets of relativity are contained in the assumptions, particularly in the assumptions of length change and time change. Einstein refers to them as the relativity of lengths and times.

1. Newtonian space. Despite relativistic Claims that Einstein has „overcome“, „invalidated“ or „rejected“ Newtonian absolute space, his argument cannot get off the ground and proceed through its various twists without it. What he calls the stationary System is an absolutely fundamental and essential concept in his reasoning, and at the beginning of his exposition he defines it as one in which the equations of Newtonian mechanics hold good.

The stationary system is used to derive all other assumptions of the argument and it is, therefore, of utmost importance to realise that without the explicit acceptance of Newtonian space this would not be possible. The first and most important ingredient of the rod experiment is the stationary rigid rod which represents the stationary system. The Einsteinian rod is stationary because it rests absolutely in space, and it is rigid because the stability of its internal structure is directly related to the absolute homogeneity and immutability of space. What Einstein is affirming and applying in his first assumption are two entirely Newtonian properties of space: absolute rest and absolute rigidity. Both have been abstracted and extracted from nature and are fundamental concepts of physics.  

2. Newtonian time. Not only is Newtonian space indispensable for the Einsteinian argument, but also Newtonian time. A second system, which becomes later the moving system, is introduced after the stationary system has been established, and this system is also one in which the equations of Newtonian mechanics hold good because it is described as identical with the first system. Both are defined by the employment of rigid Standards of measurement and the methods of Euclidean geometry. Motion is imparted to the second system, and Einstein, quite correctly, says that if we wish to describe the motion of this system, we give the values of its co-ordinates as functions of time. The time referred to is Newtonian time. It is universal and its progression is absolutely constant. Thus the two Systems, or components of the Einsteinian doublet, and the components of the motion of one of them, are determined and originate entirely within the framework of classifical physics.

3. Einsteinian doublet. This is a pair of „Systems“ or a System which has two components. The relativistic doublet always consists of one System which is stationary in Newtonian space and another which is moving in relation to the first. It is a binary entity in which the two components differ. Their difference can be described only with the help of Newtonian concepts. The system specification is the first purely Einsteinian idea and the first step of the relativistic argument. It restricts the applicability of the subsequent stages of the argument to a particular kinematical arrangement.

If we take a closer look at the two components of the doublet, we will find that they are very narrowly, and at the same time quite insufficiently, determined. Furthermore, they do not resemble anything that can be found in physical reality. Einstein commences his argument in the first chapter of his 1905 paper by saying: Let us take a system of co-ordinates in which the equations of Newtonian mechanics hold good. But in the second chapter he modifies his initial idea by saying: Let there be given a stationary rigid rod; and let its length be as measured by a measuring rod which is also stationary. What has happened to the stationary system is this: it has been reduced from a three-dimensional to a one-dimensional configuration and has, at the same time, been „decentralised“ from a one-point intersection of co-ordinates to a two-point distance or line, represented by a stationary rod. This rod may just as well be a base line determined by two points in absolutely resting space. The second component of the doublet is represented by a moving rod. It is introduced by Einstein in the following way: We now imagine the axis of the rod lying along the axis of x of the stationary system of co-ordinates and that a uniform motion of parallel translation with velocity v along the axis of x in the direction of increasing x is then imparted to the rod. As far as this description is concerned, the real significance of all these words lies in the fact that the moving rod is displaced coaxially with the stationary rod. What is taking place is a one-dimensional superimposition of a moving line on a stationary base line.


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Beste Grüße Ekkehard Friebe


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